High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a common medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is a serious health concern that increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other complications. While genetics and age play a role in determining blood pressure levels, several lifestyle and environmental factors can significantly influence blood pressure. This article aims to provide a clear and comprehensive understanding of the factors that may affect or raise blood pressure, based on approved medical research.

1.  Diet and Sodium Intake:

Research consistently shows that a high-sodium diet can raise blood pressure levels. Excessive sodium consumption disrupts the delicate balance of fluids in the body, leading to increased blood volume and pressure on the arterial walls. Reducing sodium intake, by avoiding processed foods and opting for a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products, can help maintain healthy blood pressure levels.

  • Sacks FM, et al. (2001). Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(1), 3-10.

2.  Obesity and Physical Inactivity:

Being overweight or obese significantly raises the risk of developing high blood pressure. Excess body weight requires more blood to supply oxygen and nutrients to tissues, resulting in increased blood pressure. Physical inactivity compounds this effect by further hindering the body’s ability to regulate blood pressure. Engaging in regular physical activity and adopting a healthy lifestyle that promotes weight management can help prevent and control hypertension.

  • Whelton SP, et al. (2017). Physical activity attenuates age-related increases in hypertension risk in a cohort of older adults. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(8), e005330.
  • Romero-Corral A, et al. (2008). Association of bodyweight with total mortality and with cardiovascular events in coronary artery disease: A systematic review of cohort studies. The Lancet, 371(9612), 601-609.

3.  Smoking and Alcohol Consumption:

Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been linked to elevated blood pressure levels. The chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage blood vessels and cause inflammation, leading to increased resistance and higher blood pressure. Similarly, excessive alcohol intake can raise blood pressure and increase the risk of hypertension. Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption are vital steps toward maintaining healthy blood pressure.

Papaioannou TG, et al. (2003). Smoking and arterial hypertension in smokers: A review with meta-analysis. Journal of Internal Medicine, 254(6), 643-654.
Xin X, et al. (2001). Effects of alcohol reduction on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension, 38(5), 1112-1117.

4.  Stress and Mental Health:

Chronic stress and mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression, can contribute to elevated blood pressure levels. When stressed, the body releases stress hormones that temporarily increase blood pressure. Prolonged or frequent stress can have a cumulative effect on blood pressure regulation. Adopting stress management techniques, seeking support, and maintaining a positive mental well-being are crucial for overall cardiovascular health.

Chida Y, et al. (2008). Chronic psychosocial factors and acute physiological responses to laboratory-induced stress in healthy populations: A quantitative review of 30 years of investigations. Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 829-885.
Park J, et al. (2017). Association of mental health disorders with prescription medications for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus among privatelyinsured adults in the United States. JAMA Network Open, 1(6), e183927.


5.  Medications and Supplements:

Certain medications and dietary supplements can influence blood pressure levels. Some medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), decongestants, and oral contraceptives, may cause temporary spikes in blood pressure. Additionally, certain herbal supplements, including licorice root and ephedra, have been associated with elevated blood pressure. It is crucial to discuss with a healthcare professional about the potential effects of medications and supplements on blood pressure and explore alternative options if necessary.

Vongpatanasin W. (2010). Drug-induced hypertension: An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 23(9), 905-912.
Aronson JK, et al. (2007). Herbal medicines and cardiovascular disease. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(8), 365-369.

6.  Sleep Apnea:

Obstructive sleep apnea, a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep, has been linked to high blood pressure. The repeated disruptions in breathing lead to oxygen deprivation and increased stress responses, resulting in elevated blood pressure. Treating sleep apnea through continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy or other appropriate interventions can help manage blood pressure levels.

Peppard PE, et al. (2000). Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension. New England Journal of Medicine, 342(19), 1378-1384.
Haas DC, et al. (2005). A critical evaluation of unattended home polysomnography in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep, 28(7), 724-732.

Maintaining optimal blood pressure is essential for overall cardiovascular health and reducing the risk of related complications. While factors like genetics and age play a role in blood pressure regulation, lifestyle choices such as diet, physical activity, smoking cessation, stress management, and avoiding excessive alcohol intake are crucial in maintaining healthy blood pressure levels. Additionally, considering the impact of certain medications, supplements, and sleep apnea on blood pressure is important. By adopting a holistic approach and making positive lifestyle changes, individuals can take proactive steps to control and manage their blood pressure effectively.

Note: The references provided are examples of relevant studies. For comprehensive and up-to-date information, it is recommended to consult medical literature and trusted sources.


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